“Toxic femininity” refers to women who are hostile to nurturance and cooperation, opting instead for aggression and backstabbing to get ahead. In this regard, the type of leaders and team builders who are hired is critical to a successful business. Certain personality characteristics are associated typically with leaders who are willing to be risk takers, assertive, fighters, and task-oriented. Nurturant is not a typical descriptor of leaders. It suggests a “mothering” approach and evokes images of passivity; that is, being a supporter rather than a leader, and being someone who is focused on relationships rather than tasks. Men who hire women to be leaders may not consider “nurturers” as competent for the role. Therefore, women in business leadership positions, may consciously or unconsciously, shy away from these and other “feminine-centric” images.
The phrase is derived from studies that focus on violent behavior perpetrated by men, and—this is key—is designed to describe not masculinity itself, but a form of gendered behavior that results when expectations of “what it means to be a man” go wrong. The Good Men Project defines it this way:
Toxic masculinity is a narrow and repressive description of manhood, designating manhood as defined by violence, sex, status and aggression. It’s the cultural ideal of manliness, where strength is everything while emotions are a weakness; where sex and brutality are yardsticks by which men are measured, while supposedly “feminine” traits—which can range from emotional vulnerability to simply not being hypersexual—are the means by which your status as “man” can be taken away.
Trump’s embodiment of masculinity is a huge part of why people voted for him in the first place. “Tough on immigration.” “Tells it like it is.” His constant belittling of his political opponents. The characterization of liberals as “snowflakes,” fragile and easy to offend. Not being politically correct. His aggressive reactions to the press or other opponents. His assertion of power over others. These are all things that are undeniably Trump, if you find them repulsive or commendable is entirely up to you.’
But while mass killers are socially and emotionally disturbed, experts say they don’t tend to be mentally ill. Research from Columbia University shows that only about one in five mass murderers are psychotic or delusional. Another major report found that just 4 percent of all violence in the U.S. is attributable to mental health.
Amy Barnhorst, a psychiatrist with UC Davis, said medication isn’t the answer for people who are “full of hatred and bitterness and resentment” or who have “violent, vengeful fantasies against people they think wronged them.”
To say that violence is driven by anger, and that anger is rooted in fear, is not to mitigate the culpability of a frightened and angry murderer or any other criminal that engages in violence after experiencing fear and rage. On the contrary, we all need to make rational choices in our lives regardless of our emotional state, and we are all legally responsible for our actions.
However, the law notwithstanding, my experience as a criminologist has shown me that there are times when human emotions trump rationality, and no emotion is more powerful or motivating than fear. If you doubt this conclusion, ask a violent person to look beneath his anger and describe his feelings. If he is honest, he will describe his fear.
If the shooter had mentioned isis, the motive would be deemed political; if he were nonwhite, it would be racial. If he were white and hadn’t mentioned isis, there might be a domestic or family-related motive, or mental illness, or a bizarre, mysterious lack of motive. Each motive would, in effect, limit the number of people whose problem the killing was.
“One of the myths we try to break down during this month is that if you have a mental illness that it’s an automatically disabling condition. Just because you have a mental illness or somebody in your family has a mental illness does not mean you’re on a path to disability. There’s treatment available for all forms of mental health conditions,” Hannon said.
Dr. Katherine C. Nordal, a psychologist and executive director for professional practice for the American Psychological Association, said in an APA interview that awareness of mental health issues has definitely improved in recent decades.
“When I entered practice more than 30 years ago, individuals in my semi-rural community would often travel 40 to 50 miles to get treatment because they did not want anyone to know they were seeing a therapist,” Nordal said. “We have taken great strides since then as more people talk about mental health publicly and as we see more positive depictions of mental health in popular culture.”
According to multiple studies in recent years, mental illness diagnoses are not as closely related to mass shootings as some believe. News coverage after a tragedy can often focus on a violent offender’s troubled past or difficulties in social settings, such as in a Washington Post article published after the Parkland shooting that cited the shooter’s previous “mental health concerns.” However, a 2015 study by Jonathan M. Metzl in the American Journal of Public Health says fewer than 3 to 5 percent of crimes in the United States involve people with mental illness.
“Apologize to me for talking that way!” The words flew out of my mouth, setting me up for an epic battle of wills. When my 6-year-old daughter finally mumbled an apology through her tears, I wondered if all the drama had been worth it. Had she learned anything by being pushed to say “I’m sorry”? Experts explain what’s important is not simply saying the words but learning to take responsibility for a mistake. “Children this age may resist apologizing because they believe the mistake wasn’t their fault,” says Ericka Anderson, a licensed professional counselor at The Healing Grove, in Glenwood Springs, Colorado. “They need reassurance that even though they misbehaved, they are not ‘bad’ and are still loved.” By breaking the apology process into a few steps you can help your child understand how her actions affect others and learn when to make amends.
There is no clear diagnosis of an anger disorder, but the psychiatric diagnostic manual does include “intermittent explosive disorder”, which is characterised by recurrent behavioural outbursts representing a failure to control aggressive impulses. This affects 7.3% of the population at some point in their life and 3.9% in the past 12 months.
Anger, however, is a common clinical presentation that features across an array of different mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders and many more.
If you begin to notice that you are on edge quite a lot, do things that you later regret, are quick to react instead of respond, and that you have people in your life who have told you that you tend to get angry, it might be helpful to do something about it.
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